The Shire of Barcoo is a local government area in Central West Queensland, Australia. In June 2018, the shire had a population of 267 people.

It covers an area of 61,830 square kilometres (23,872.7 sq mi), and has existed as a local government entity since 1887. It is named for the Barcoo River which reaches a confluence with the Thomson River in the shire to form Cooper Creek.

The major industry in the shire is beef production and some opal mining. There has been some development of the known oil and gas reserves in the region.